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India is recognized as one of the 12 mega diversity centres of the world. Out of the 18 Biodiversity hot-spots in the world, India owns 2, namely the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas. Sikkim covering just 0.2 % of the geographical area of the country has tremendous biodiversity and has been identified as one of the HOT-SPOT in the Eastern Himalayas.
  • There are 10 bio-geographic zones & 25 biotic provinces--- which have 16 major forests types & > 200 sub types as per (Champion & Seth 1968).
  • Sikkim falls under Himalayan (2) Bio-geographic zone & Central Himalaya (2c) biotic province----having about 9 types of forests types (Champion & Seth).
The State is endowed with rich floral and faunal diversity. Species wise, the State harbors over 4500 flowering plants, 550 Orchids, 36 Rhododendrons, 16 Conifers, 28 Bamboos, 362 Ferns and its allies, 9 Tree Ferns, 30 Primulas, 11 Oaks, over 424 Medicinal plants, 144+ mammals, 550 Birds, 48 Fishes and over 600 Butterflies. While these figures are still not absolute, it may be kept in mind that this is only the mega-fauna and flora. The tremendous diversity of insects like beetles and moths as well as a host of other life forms is yet to be enumerated. Most of the high altitude medicinal plants are rare and endangered species. Sikkim also has 28 Mountains/Peaks, more than 80 Glaciers, 227 high altitude lakes/wetlands and over 104 rivers and streams.

Nature has been particularly generous in her gift of sylvan treasures to the state of Sikkim. Luxuriant forest, abound in all part of state and variety of medicinal plants, herbs, shrubs, bamboos and trees growing in state is truly rich. In the forest, there are number of plants whose medicinal values have been well recognized by local people as well as by different pharmaceutical, insecticidal and perfumery sectors. Medicinal plants ought to be given the status of a “National Resources” because their sustained availability is essential to sustain one of the world’s oldest medicinal traditions, a priceless legacy of the Indian people. The local inhabitants for treatment of various ailments use numerous herbal remedies. Further more, modern medicines owes to the flora of these mountains. Many inhabitants for treatment of various ailments use numerous herbal remedies. Many species of Himalayan origin have revolutionized the allopathic systems of medicine.
Biodiversity at a Glance Nos
Flowering Plants 4500
Orchids   550
Rhododendrons 36
Conifers 16
Bamboos 28
Ferns and Ferns allies 362
Tree Ferns 9
Primulas  30
Oaks 11
Medicinal Plants 424
Mammals >144
Birds 552
Butterflies 600
Fishes 48
Mountain & Peaks 28
Glaciers 84
Lakes and Wetlands 227
Rivers and Streams >104



Sikkim State Biodiversity Board

Sikkim Medicinal Plant Board
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