FORESTS, ENVIRONMENT & WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT Government of Sikkim

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Sericulture

Sericulture Directorate

The Sericulture Directorate is responsible for development of Sericulture in Sikkim. Till the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan, the activities of sericulture were at low profile but has picked up pace from the beginning of the Ninth Five Year Plan. The state government has approved the project for Rs. 5.00 crore for “Development and Extension of Sericulture in Sikkim” in the Ninth Five Year Plan. Although the activities are currently confined to the three districts viz. East, South and West, suitable areas of North District are also being taken in the various stages of the project. 115 villages and 1300 families have been earmarked to be covered during the project period of five years. The Central Board has also agreed to provide financial assistance for training of sericulture farmers and for infrastructure development of the project. The directorate is maintaining three Sericulture farms, one each in East, South and West District.

The main objectives of the Sericulture Directorate are:
  • Rearing of improved variety of silkworms.
  • Propagation of Mulberry seedlings.
  • Distribution of the seedlings to the villagers.
  • Providing training, financial assistance, infrastructure and other inputs for silkworm cultivation in the state.
  • Organizing awareness camps in the villages

It has been a joint venture between state government and Central Silk Board to make the sericulture practices flourish in this non-traditional zone of Sikkim State. In this regard continuous efforts are being made by the Board also through the Regional Extension Centre situate at Rangpo. Various programmes are being launched like TAR, despite of financial assistance on subsidy to the farmers and up-gradation of Govt. establishments under the CDP. And in spite of every efforts from the govt. participating people are found quite irresponsive also, which could also be overcome in the near future for making this scheme a great success in the regions like Sikkim State.

State Plan and Programme (Allocation and Expenditure over the Plan.)
Plan Year Allocation: Rs. in lakh Expenditure Rs. in lakh Remarks (No. of provision  for extension)
VIII Plan 1992-1997 0.00 60.00 Extension in the villages were under taken, under the CDP and maximum Infrastructures have been augmented. But manpower remains same.
IX Plan 1997-2002 210.00 210.00
X Plan 2002-2003 40.00 40.00

All three types of sericulture has ample scope for its growth in this region, desperately requires serious thought in exercising technology and financial input. Financial input is not only the factor for its promotion, however technology, manpower and infrastructure plays equal role in the process of development

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Beneficiaries Adopted for Sericulture Development in Sikkim

Sl.No Number of Beneficiaries Adopted for Sericulture Development
District 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Total
1 East 04 32 39 13 05 - 09 102
2 South 06 23 11 28 34 - 12 114
3 West 02 21 12 13 29 - 03 80
Total 12 76 62 54 68 21 21 296
Area Covered(Ha) 7.6 32.0 24.8 21.6 27.2 8.40 8.40 130.00

Training for silkworm cultivation was provided to 12 farmers in the year 1998-99 and to 80 farmers in 20012002.  Each of the farmer (beneficiary) was given (i) Stipend Rs.500/ - with free fooding and lodging,(ii) Rs.1,000/- for plantation of mulberry saplings,(iii) Rs. 5,000/- for low cost rearing house,(iv) Rs.500 for weeding and manuring, (v) Dala & Chandraki worth Rs.3000/- (vi) Subsidy in mulberry saplings Rs.3000/-. Hence each beneficiary was provided with Rs.13,300/- in cash and in kind. The 12 beneficiaries 1998-99 and the 80 beneficiaries of 2000--2001, who adopted sericulture farming, have started earning from silkworm cocoons produced by them. The department purchased cocoons worth Rs.11,828/- from the 12 beneficiaries adopted in the year 1998-99. In the year 20012002 Rs.1.56 lakhs was realized by sale cocoons and from the beneficiaries being cost of saplings at subsidized rates.

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Silk Industry

Sericulture practices in Sikkim State remain confined within the few Govt.farms and nurseries, since it was started for the first time in the year 1977-78 under the department  of Forest and Wildlife. Over the past two decades, there has been limitations in its Extensions and developmental activities, however in the beginning of 9th five year plan it was break through in its funding sector, subsequently, package of mulberry sericulture are extended to the villages in three district of Sikkim where it is found feasible, on the process required minimum infrastructures were augmented in the existing govt. farms, excluding the limited number of manpower those were dealing with it till date.

The district wise area and production of mulberry cocoon (2003-04) is as given below:

Sl.No

Name of the District

   Area (Acre) till date Total Dfls.in Hund Nos. Production of Reeling Cocoons (in kg) Production of Seed Cocoons

 Rain fed

Irrigated 

BV

MV

1.

East

106

Nil

106

2575

327

  -

--------

2.

West

131

Nil

131

1550

105

  -

--------

3.

South

133

Nil

133

4845

553

  -

 

Total

370

 

370

8970

985

  -

 

NB:     The area shown as above may not be all well maintained, or some area may be already neglected.

In fact, lunching with new CDP scheme by the CSB, considerable increase in both area of mulberry plantations as well as in silkworm rearing came in to the picture, however due to heavy mortality in plantations, and repeated failure of Silkworm rearings in the climatic adversity particularly in the farmers level, and because of poor marketing facility of cocoon produced in the State still becomes bottleneck, so production figure is far matching to the figure with the area of plantations. 

Productivity Parameters:

Year

Cocoon/100 Dfls.

Dfls.brushed per Acre. (in total)

Reeling Cocoons kg.

Raw silk kg/acre.

Renditta.

2000-01

35.70

3000 approx.

1071

N.A.

Not assessed

2001-02

27.68

4000 approx.

1107

N.A.

Not assessed

2002-03

15.62

8000 approx.

1274

N.A.

Not assessed

2003-04

10.99

8970 approx.

 985

N.A.

Not assessed

NB:   1. It is not feasible to assess the productivity parameters in acrage, in reasons most of the plantation areas are poorly maintained, or survivality is very poor.

       2. The Dfls. Consumptions per family is hardly 40 dfls. Per crop due to high mortality of  mulberry plants.

        Since the total annual consumption of dfls.in the state has not gone beyond 10000 Nos. so this meagre quantity is being procured from the different CSB agencies therefore, state does not feel to have own seed organization until the demand of seed exceeds at least 20,000 dfls.annually.

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Eri Sector:  In the state of Sikkim natural distribution of Eri food plants viz. Castor abundantly available, and Tapioca is also cultivated by every farmers for consumption of its root, one more perennial host plant called Khanakpa in local language is also available. Hence, in consideration to its best utility of leaves and seed of castor for economic boost up of our poor farmers, Ericulture has been introduced first time in the year 2003-04, in some of the villages as indicated below:

Area and Production Statue:

Year

Area under Food plants (Acre)

Production of

Remarks

Dfls.in Nos.

Cut cocoons in kg.

Raw Silk in kg.

2002-03

Nil Nil Nil Nil

Not started

2003-04

30 Nil Nil Nil

Rearing not Started yet

Total

30 Nil Nil Nil

Not started

Muga Sector:  Augmentation of Muga food plants was introduced in 2003-04 in Sikkim, under the CDP, identified host plant called Kutmero in local language (Litsea polyantha) abundantly available in natural conditions needs only systematic plantation. In the same year nearly 12 acres has been brought under muga host plant plantations in South and West Sikkim. This may be seen under the tab given below:

Year

Area under Food plants (Acre)

Production of

Remarks

Dfls.in Nos.

Cut cocoons in kg.

Raw Silk in kg.

2002-03

Nil Nil Nil Nil

Not started

2003-04

12 Nil Nil Nil

Rearing starts from 2004-09-09 onwards

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Marketing

Actual problem being faced by the state is marketing of cocoons, out the four crops only last crop harvested in the month of October had been disposed off to the private granures as Seed cocoon, that too is at very low price.  However, there is chances of better co-ordination between the two states of Sikkim and West Bengal in marketing the all three types of cocoons produced in this state, which shall be operated symbiotically in near future.

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Infrastructure

Infrastructures required for the Sericulture industry in the state is very limited, as per the area and volume of activities even though, minimum required facilities have been arranged in the Govt. sectors. However, private entrepreneurs in the sericulture sector is yet to come. 

Sericulture Villages (Nos)

Sericulture farmers

Total

No.of silk Handlooms

No.of Reelers

No.of Weavers

Reeling Devices

SC ST

Others

50

11 76

183

370

NOT APP

LICAB

LE

N.

A.

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Employment

Out of the 370 families those have taken up mulberry plantations in their own land, vary few of them are continuing it as part time work and majority of the farmers have started neglecting since they could not gain confidence out of it due to (i) Higher mortality of plantations (ii) Regular failure in rearing (iii) Less remuneration or lack of marketing and (iv) and other reasons. The villagers doing part time sericulture in the state is given in subsequent page: 

District

No of Villages

No.of Family Involved in Rearing

Average No.of Crops

Avg.No.of Dfls.consumption Per crop/per Family

Avg.Cocoon Harvested In 100 Dfls

Remarks

East

02

09

05

25

23 kg

Dfls.consumption per crop is very Less

South

04

12

04

20

20 kg

West

03

10

03

15

15 kg

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